Dual Action Pyrethrum and Beauveria bassania for fast knock down and confident residual kill
XPECTRO® is a novel formulation (patent pending) developed by LAM International. The product is based on the Beauveria bassiana GHA strain and Refined Pyrethrum Extract, formulated together in an emulsifiable dispersable oil (OD) for the latest generation of biorationals for insect pest control.
Laboratory and field applications have demonstrated that the interaction between the GHA strain and natural botanical pyrethrins is synergistic, with multiple modes of action and pest control results comparable to those obtained using chemical alternatives. This makes XPECTRO® a new tool for IPM control strategies of mites, whiteflies, aphids, thrips, psyllids, mealybugs, soft scales, leafhoppers and plant hoppers, weevils, plant bugs, borers, leaffeeding insects, scarab and leaf-feeding beetles, on all types of crops, including organic farming.
Pyrethrum is the natural extract that occurs in the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium andC. cineum, having six active natural insecticidal compounds called pyrethrins: pyrethrin I – II, cinerin I – II, jasmolin I – II. This pyrethrum extract is used extensively as an effective insecticide, and poses little hazard to mammals (including humans) by natural routes of exposure. Furthermore, the Pyrethrum content in XPECTRO® is the lowest of any product in the market, adding to its safety.
XPECTRO® does not require additional coadjuvants and its formulation protects the active ingredients from adverse conditions and can be stored up to a temperature of 80°F (27°C).
NATURAL PYRETHRINS VS PYRETHROIDS
Pyrethroids are synthetic, or man-made, versions of natural pyrethrins. There are two major classes of pyrethroids, Type I and Type II pyrethroids. Type I pyrethroids are characterized by their ability to knockdown insects quickly but the Type II pyrethroids will induce higher insect mortality than Type I pyrethroids. While pyrethrum extract is composed of 6 esters (pyrethrins) which are insecticidal, a synthetic pyrethroid is composed of only one chemically active compound.
One important difference between natural pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids is the behavioral effect they have on insects. Natural pyrethrins have a unique ability to induce excitation behavior in the target insect. This excitation behavior is characterized by erratic and increased movement by insects. This is sometimes referred to as ‘flushing’ action. This flushing action induced by natural pyrethrins is highly desirable; because of the increase in movement, which results in increased insect exposure to pyrethrins and the Beauveria bassiana GHA spores.
MODE OF ACTION
Natural pyrethrins induce a toxic effect in insects when they penetrate the cuticle and reach the nervous system. These pyrethrins bind to sodium channels that occur along the length of nerve cells. Sodium channels are responsible for nerve signal transmission along the length of the nerve cell by permitting the flux of sodium ions. When natural pyrethrins bind to sodium channels, normal function of the channels is obstructed thereby resulting in hyperexcitation of the nerve cell and, consequently, a loss of function of the nerve cell. The shutdown of the insect nervous system and death are most often the consequences of insect exposure to natural pyrethrins.
Natural pyrethrins are rapidly eliminated in the environment, and their breakdown products are essentially non-toxic and pose no risk. The primary route of elimination in the environment is photolysis (UV light mediated). This occurs rapidly both in water and soil with dissipation half-lives of less than 24 hours. Natural pyrethrins also breakdown readily on fabric and tile. The initial phase of decay occurs with a short half-life ranging from 1.8 to 2.33 hours of direct sunlight for tile and 1.66 to 3.25 hours of direct sunlight for percale. The second half-life is slower and ranges from 7.0 to 16.0 hours of direct sunlight for tile and 4.2 to 11.0 hours of direct sunlight for percale.
Because of the relatively water insoluble nature of the natural pyrethrins, they are considered immobile in soil. This property greatly limits their ability to migrate into groundwater. The binding of natural pyrethrins to soil makes microbial metabolism in the soil an important component of the degradation of natural pyrethrins, with half-lives of 10.5 days under aerobic soil conditions and 86.1 days in anaerobic conditions.
The properties and environmental fate characteristics discussed above, along with the ready metabolism of natural pyrethrins in various species in the food chain from microbes through fish indicate that pyrethrins are short lived in the environment and will not bioaccumulate.